After a long gestation, and a COVID related delay, the good old swipe MetroCard replacement has finally shipped. OMNY card: a ‘truth in the cloud’ EMV bank payment card, not a MIFARE or FeliCa ‘truth in the card ‘ smartcard like London Oyster or Tokyo Suica. As MetroCard missed the transit smartcard revolution of the early 2000’s, MTA and ticketing system management company Cubic Transportation Systems decided to go all in with a new system built on EMV and open loop, i.e. using ‘open payment‘ EMV contactless credit/debit cards for transit fare foundation instead of dedicated transit cards. It’s a ‘one size fits all’ approach where bank payments cards are promoted for every kind of purchase. The coming addition of fare capping, i.e. OMNY card features without OMNY card, further reduces the need for OMNY card commuter passes and encourages credit/debit card use.
The piecemeal OMNY rollout has not been an easy transition for MetroCard users. One problem with one size fits all open loop is that different people have different needs: minors, seniors, disabled, daily commuters with set routes, people without credit cards and so on. Even with fare capping open loop cannot handle these well, if it did TfL would have killed Oyster card long ago. Hence OMNY card is a closed loop OMNY branded EMV card with CVV security number, likely from a Mastercard issuing agency, similar to the Mastercard closed loop Ventra and Opal digital cards. Like Ventra card, OMNY card comes in plastic and the digital version will come to Apple Pay and Google Pay ‘soon’, although MTA has not given any launch window for OMNY iOS and Android apps that will be necessary for adding OMNY to Wallet and for recharge.
As most of the open loop systems in North America, UK and Australia are designed and managed by Cubic it’s helpful to compare their ticketing system profiles.
When you carefully analyze the different systems and Express Mode transit support listed on the Where you can ride transit using Apple Pay support page, one condition becomes clear: current transit systems do not support Apple Pay Transit cards and EMV Express Transit when the system uses both MIFARE and EMV open loop. It’s a choice between supporting one or the other, not both. I suspect Apple does this because of the complexity supporting MIFARE and EMV mixed mode operations on the same transit system.
OMNY is a new system however, built completely on EMV and EMV only. When Apple Pay OMNY launches, OMNY will be the first system to support both EMV as an Apple Pay transit card and EMV Express Transit mode for credit/debit cards. There is a catch however similar to using Apple Pay China T-Union cards: turning on one card for Express Transit turns off other cards. This happens when cards share the same NFC ID number which would result in card clash at the gate reader. When cards share the same ID, only one card can be set for Express Transit mode at any one time. For EMV cards this applies to payment cards as well so Express Transit Card settings will likely turn off any activated payment cards when an OMNY card to turned on, and vice versa.
After OMNY card is launched on Apple Pay and Google Pay, the next OMNY challenge will be integrating Metro-North and LIRR commuter rail ticketing. A difficult task as none of the train line are equipped with NFC card readers. MTA has yet to unveil any commuter rail ticketing integration details. Ventra has the same problem, commuter rail ticketing remains the age old conductor visual inspection, no tap and go contactless for you. And as ever there are thorny open loop user data privacy issues.
OMNY truly represents the state American public transit as it tries to get on board with mobile payments. Progress is good and welcome but a real next generation vision with meaningful forward development of American public transit will continue to be a confused mess despite endless broken promises to fix it…simply because people with money and means don’t use it. If they did, things would have been fixed long ago.
Don’t you love how big organizations play fast and loose with big concepts like Host Card Emulation? HCE was SimplyTapp created technology that Google incorporated into Android Pay in 2013 sowing endless nonsense and confused debate about ‘open’ vs ‘closed’ NFC, aka the secure element wars. Back then industry pundits said:
The significance of HCE is that it frees NFC from dependence on the secure element, which has largely been controlled by mobile carriers. Banks, merchants, and wallet developers must pay fees for access to that chip. Yeager is counting on HCE to scare up interest among issuers and kickstart NFC, which has been stuck in neutral for years.
SimplyTapp, the Power Behind Google’s NFC Workaround, Aims at Mobile Banking
Let’s make this simple as possible and list the industry forces in the secure element wars:
SIM Secure Element (SE) used by the mobile carriers
Embedded Secure Element (eSE) used by smartphone manufacturer digital wallet platforms (Apple Pay, Samsung Pay, Huawei Pay that use customized eSE and truly control it, off the shelf all-in-one NFC chipset users like Pixel and Xiaomi not so much)
Host Card Emulation (HCE) is a secure element in the cloud strategy used by banks and card issuers on network connected Android devices using their own apps that bypass #1 and #2.
Carriers, smartphone manufacturers, banks•card issuers. Carriers lost out long ago. A classic case would be NTT docomo who built the worlds first major digital wallet platform, Osaifu Keitai, using Sony Mobile FeliCa technology back in 2004. Osaifu Keitai eventually made it to the other major Japanese carriers (KDDI au and SoftBank) but the carriers made the mistake of locking and limiting Osaifu Keitai service to SIM contracts and their own branded handsets.
More than anything else, carriers milking Osaifu Keitai as an expensive exclusive SIM contract option instead of making it a SIM free standard for everybody, was the reason why Osaifu Keitai growth stalled. The 2016 launch of Apple Pay in Japan circumvented the entire SIM SE mess with its own eSE, and gave Mobile FeliCa the second chance it’s enjoying now.
Smart Navigo power play Smart Navigo is the Île-de-France Mobilités (IDFM) Paris region transit card for mobile on Galaxy devices, and Android smartphones with Orange SIM cards. France was an early innovator of NFC on mobile phones but it did not lead to early mobile transit adoption: Smart Navigo launched in September 2019.
What LeParisien was reporting was that IDFM suddenly ended their partnership with Orange: “As long as you do not change your SIM card, the service is operational: you can continue to buy tickets and validate them with your phone,” If customers change their Orange SIM card, Smart Navigo no longer works.
Hello…it’s the end of 2021, the secure element wars ended years ago. Perhaps IDFM didn’t get the message. Or maybe they want to turn back the clock and fight the battle again. The French Apple news site iGeneration reports:
A new solution is scheduled for deployment in mid-2022. It will be open to all Android smartphones, without operator constraints, thanks to HCE (Host Card Emulation) technology that emulates cards in a mobile application, allowing it to free itself from NFC constraints. HCE was also partly used for the SIM card developed by the start-up Wizway on behalf of Orange.
It’s important to remember that one problem with the term HCE is that people and companies use it very loosely. All secure element methods have to load payment credentials from the cloud at some point. The big difference is that eSE and SIM SE have secure physical areas to store those payment credentials on the device, HCE does not. Far too many people assume that any kind of loading from the cloud = HCE, it does not. HCE = storing on the cloud.
With HCE, critical payment credentials are stored in a secure shared repository (the issuer data center or private cloud) rather than on the phone. Limited use credentials are delivered to the phone in advance to enable contactless transactions to take place.
This approach eliminates the need for Trusted Service Managers (TSMs) and shifts control back to the banks. However, it brings with it a different set of security and risk challenges…
A centralized service to store many millions of payment credentials or create one-time use credentials on demand creates an obvious point of attack. Although banks have issued cards for years, those systems have largely been offline and have not requiring round-the-cloud interaction with the payment token (in this case a plastic card). HCE requires these services to be online and accessible in real-time as part of individual payment transactions. Failure to protect these service platforms places the issuer at considerable risk of fraud…
All mobile payments schemes are more complex than traditional card payments, yet smart phone user expectations are extremely high:
•Poor mobile network coverage can make HCE services inaccessible. •Complex authentication schemes lead to errors. •Software or hardware incompatibility can stop transactions.
What is Host Card Emulation (HCE)?
The two key takeaways are: 1) HCE shifts control back to banks and card issuers, 2) No network = no HCE. Think of HCE as the NCF equivalent of QR Code payment services like AliPay and PayPay that also send payment credentials to the app, just in a different format.
Apple Pay has succeeded because it delivers on those high smartphone user expectations better than any other digital wallet out there. That’s why JR East needed to get Suica on Apple Pay to take Mobile Suica to the next level combining ease of use with growth, which is exactly what happened.
IDFM unceremoniously dumping Orange and going all in with HCE says to me that IDFM wants full control and nothing to do with carrier SIM SE, smartphone manufacture eSE, nor pay transaction fees to anybody… it’s our app or nothing.
We won’t know the full story until the HCE Android service starts sometime in 2022, presumably after pay-as-you-go functionality is fully operational and ready on all exit gates. IDFM has been in talks with Apple ever since Smart Navigo was first announced in 2017. At that time they said:
“Unfortunately, it won’t be possible for iPhone owners to use the service since Apple does not yet allow third parties to access the NFC secure element in their phones. However, we are happy to explore the possibilities with Apple to offer the same service to all Paris public transport users.
One last thing: smart wearables won’t work with a HCE only Smart Navigo strategy. This is the lesson that Fitbit and Garmin have learned well from Apple Watch for deploying Mobile Suica on their devices: keep things simple and on the device for local processing without a network connection. This is what makes the Suica support coming to WearOS so interesting, it might succeed in beating Android as the first non-Apple global NFC device.
As for Smart Navigo, indeed a step forward, a step back. The IDFM journey to mobile ticketing for everybody is not a long quiet river.
This concludes the final installment Contactless Payment Turf Wars. It has been an unexpectedly longer series than planned. I hope people enjoyed reading them as much as I enjoyed writing them. Thanks always and happy transits!
“FBI and MI5 are conducting an intensive investigation into PAX,” the source said. “A major US payment processor began asking questions about network packets originating from PAX terminals and were not given any good answers.”
The source said two major financial providers — one in the United States and one in the United Kingdom — had already begun pulling PAX terminals from their payment infrastructure, a claim that was verified by two different sources.
“My sources say that there is tech proof of the way that the terminals were used in attack ops,” the source said. “The packet sizes don’t match the payment data they should be sending, nor does it correlate with telemetry these devices might display if they were updating their software. PAX is now claiming that the investigation is racially and politically motivated.”
FBI, MI5, unnamed sources? Sounds like a spy novel. The original Jacksonville WOKV report is down to earth local news reporting with the official statement from the FBI: “The FBI Jacksonville Division, in partnership with Homeland Security Investigations, Customs and Border Protection, Department of Commerce, and Naval Criminal Investigative Services, and with the support of the Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office, is executing a court-authorized search at this location in furtherance of a federal investigation. We are not aware of any physical threat to the surrounding community related to this search. The investigation remains active and ongoing and no additional information can be confirmed at this time.”
PAX NFC terminals and POS systems support EMV, FeliCa and MIFARE protocols and are used extensively in Japan in nationwide POS systems such as FamiMart and Doutor Coffee chains. However it’s important to remember that each protocol has a hardware certification process, for EMVCo, for FeliCa Networks and for MIFARE. Card companies also have their own hardware security and certification. And even though the story sounds scary, we don’t know what ‘major financial provider’ POS systems are pulling PAX readers*, what hardware models are involved and what kind of POS software they run (provided by PAX? Developed in-house?), or what exactly the FBI are investigating.
That said, this is much more real and interesting than the silly Apple Pay EMV Express Transit VISA security scare story pushed by the BBC, mindlessly repeated by tech sites and dubious ‘security experts’ who scare people into buying their ‘services’. The so-called Apple Pay EMV Express Transit VISA exploit was just a lab experiment, this is happening in the field. The PAX story won’t get much press however because it does’t have ‘Apple Pay’ in the headline. At least not yet…I’m sure some media hack out there will come up with one, something like ‘Apple Pay sends your personal payment data to China’. Only then will people start paying attention.
*UPDATE 2021-11-03 Bloomberg reports FIS Worldpay (also based in Jacksonville next door to PAX…interesting eh?) is pulling PAX NFC readers from client systems and replacing them with Verifone and Ingenico NFC readers. FIS said, “While we have no evidence that data running through PAX POS devices has been compromised, we have been working directly with clients to replace those devices with other options at no cost to them and with as little disruption to their business as possible.” No evidence but Worldpay is replacing PAX readers anyway…based on what exactly, heresy?
PAX NFC readers comprise less than 5% of Worldpay client POS installations so we’re not talking big numbers. Meanwhile PAX has issued a long winded statement (PAX Technology announcement and resumption of trading) addressing and refuting the security risk claims from Krebs and FIS saying it’s only a geolocation feature. We don’t know which PAX reader models are involved but I suspect they are Android based. That’s the problem with all those crappy Android OS based POS+NFC all in one terminals: not only do they have lousy Android performance, they have all the Android security risks too. Dedicated hardware is way better, performance-wise and security-wise.
Let me rephrase that: Global NFC Google Pay will never happen because it depends on the device’s ability to run Osaifu Keitai apps.
To which I’ll add: because Google can’t be bothered building their own software stack in Android OS Google Pay that replaces Osaifu Keitai.
Osaifu Keitai is a smartphone only software stack that has not and can not be updated for the smart wearables era. This shortcoming is driving some interesting solutions, discussed in a recent Reddit thread lamenting that Pixel went cheap instead of deep…again.
Comment: All Pixels sold in Japan since the 3 have Mobile FeLiCa NFC-F. However, Google Pay makes limited use of it. Unlike Apple Pay, Google’s implementation is limited to just a few apps in Japan. They are going to need to do a top-to-bottom overhaul of Google Pay to make this available worldwide. Not this year. But maybe as they integrate Fitbit and produce a watch, that might be the kick they need to make it work.
Mobile FeliCa is installed and runs on Pixel models worldwide, however Pixel blocks the Osaifu Keitai stack from running except for Japanese models. Despite this stalemate on the Android side, we’ve seen a number of smart wearables with Mobile Suica released over the past year from Garmin and Fitbit. We’re also seeing signs that Suica support is coming to Wear OS. From a reader:
Suica appears to finally be coming to Google Pay for Wear OS. There’s strings like “FeatureRolloutsModule_ProvideSuicaSupportedonWearValueFactory,” “WearSuicaCard,” and “WearSuicaProvisioning” in the newest APK.
Wear OS, Garmin and Fitbit do without Osaifu Keitai by using Mobile Suica Lite which runs on Mobile FeliCa Cloud. This is fine for wearables but it does leave a service gap, Osaifu Keitai devices gets the full array of FeliCa services but wearables get a subset. This begs the question, what is the future of Osaifu Keitai when it’s limited to smartphones? Apple does without it which is why both iPhone and Apple Watch seamlessly deliver the same full set of Wallet services.
Only when Google does a top to bottom overhaul of Google Pay that replaces its current dependence on Osaifu Keitai can Global NFC Google Pay ever happen and allow Google to deliver a Pixel family of devices from smartphone to wearables, that truly rival Apple, feature for feature. We need that.
Google’s previous effort, the ill-fated Android Pay HCE NFC-F, along with cheap over deep premium Pixel devices, doesn’t instill confidence that Google cares about getting it right.
I tried to think of something smart and elegant or throw together some market data numbers that explain the transformation Apple Pay facilitated in Japan, but it comes down to this picture, a crazy kaleidoscope of contactless payment choices at the local post office. That’s as mainstream as one can get.
The post office payments menu doesn’t have an Apple Pay logo but EMV brand cards at the top are Apple Pay, FeliCa cards in the middle are Apple Pay, shitty pain-in-the-neck-launch-an-app code payments at the bottom are not Apple Pay…and yes, you can still pay with cash if you need to. This crazy variety, by western standards, is the reason why Japanese Wallet users are excited about the new 16 card iOS 15 Wallet limit, they want to add more cards and 12 was not nearly enough. We have Apple Pay to thank for this overflow of payment options. Even though Apple Pay logo isn’t anywhere to be seen, Apple Pay is reason why so many contactless payment choices exist and why they are mainstream. This is the Apple Pay Japan transformation.
A timeline of changes and challenges
October 2016: Apple Pay launches in Japan with support for Suica (compatible with the Transit IC transit and payment network), iD and QUICPay payment networks (American Express, JCB, Mastercard, VISA).
September 2017: Global NFC on iPhone 8, iPhone X, Apple Watch 3 supports dual mode cards and seamless EMV and FeliCa NFC switching. Japanese users can make payments internationally with their Japanese issue cards on EMV payment terminals, and FeliCa payment terminals at home. Mobile PASMO trademark registered.
2018: Carrier code payments services launch as cashless momentum grows, iOS 12 Wallet adds MIFARE support for Student ID, May: NTT docomo dBarai, October: SoftBank PayPay.
2019: Japanese Government Cashless Consumption Tax Rebate Program
October 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020. The aim of the program is to encourage cashless purchases and increase cashless use up to 25% of all purchases by 2025. To do this the program offers up to 5% tax rebates for cashless purchases made at middle~small businesses and also offers merchant subsidies for installing cashless checkout systems. This is a prescient inflection point as COVID proves to be huge catalyst for going cashless, far more than a normal Tokyo Olympics would even have been.
2021: Apple Pay WAON and Apple Pay nanaco eMoney cards launch, VISA Japan adds Apple Pay in-app purchase support and NFC dual mode switching. This completes the Apple Pay lineup. The Tokyo Olympics didn’t turn out to the big crowd contactless driver the industry expected. Nevertheless market surveys indicate that cashless payment use in Japan has already passed the 25% target.
Japan was a very unique case, the most unique but don’t make the mistake of dismissing it as an outliner. It was way ahead of the curve with important lessons beyond the tired old meaningless FeliCa vs EMV winner-loser debate. Japan already had the extensive and mature Osaifu Keitai mobile wallet platform that launched in 2004, built on the Sony and NTT docomo created Mobile FeliCa standard, long before EMV grafted NFC on their chip and issued contactless credit cards.
The Apple Pay that launched in 2014 was exclusively EMV as credit cards were the best start point, but Apple was already hard at work adding FeliCa, MIFARE and other NFC based transaction protocols as standard in the secure element hosted on Apple Silicon. The result was first seen in 2016 iPhone 7 and Apple Watch 2 in Japan, with Apple Pay Suica, Express Transit and direct Wallet transit card adding as the centerpiece launch strategy, all firsts.
This was an extremely shrewd move. The Japanese public was well versed using Suica for transit and quick purchases. The impact of choosing the Tokyo area based Suica as the start point, coupled with the convenience of anywhere, anytime Apple Pay recharge, supercharged Suica and Apple Pay. They both grew quickly.
The full Apple Pay vision came into focus with the 2017 release of iPhone 8, iPhone X and Apple Watch 3, these were the first global NFC devices that worked everywhere. This was a complete break with the Android model of only selling FeliCa capable devices in Japan or Hong Kong. This is why any iPhone from anywhere can add and use a Suica transit card and Android devices cannot.
Only 27% of iPhone users who can use Apple Pay use it
50% don’t use Apple Pay but are interested in using it
22% don’t use Apple Pay and don’t care about using it
The middle 50 is the most interesting aspect, there has certainly been migration to the Apple Pay use bracket since COVID hit. Other interesting data points: 34.4% use Apple Pay daily, 24.9% use Apple Pay every 2~3 days, 37% use it for public transportation, 69% use it for convenience store purchases. This last one is the classic Apple Pay Suica (and now also PASMO) sweet spot: quick small on the go purchases without Face • Touch ID, courtesy of Express Mode. With COVID and Face ID with face masks, that sweet spot is sweeter than ever.
The secret of success and important lesson That is all well and good, but how did Apple Pay spearhead this market change? Apple Pay proved to be a great neutral platform for payment players to both play on and play off from. But that’s not all, there is a vital point that most people miss. The secret of Apple Pay Japan’s success was that it shifted the user focus and experience away from the Osaifu Keitai app model where different NFC services are scattered across many different apps, to a simple ‘just add the card’ in Wallet where everything ‘just works’ without apps. Complexity vs simplicity; it was this simplicity that ultimately won out because most users don’t want to deal with setting different services in a bunch of apps. It was this simplicity of the Apple Pay user experience, combined with Global NFC Apple Pay as standard across the board on all devices and price points, that drove the Japanese payments transformation that Osaifu Keitai could not with its complexity and exclusivity that pigeonholed it as a high end option instead of a standard feature.
This is the lesson of Apple Pay in Japan that other markets would do well to study. Lots of different apps offering NFC services doesn’t drive user uptake, centralized simplicity with an easy to use UI drives user interest and use, ‘it just works’ standardization. It is this centralized simplicity that is driving user interest in iOS 15.1 Vaccination Certificate Wallet support and driver’s license ID. The EU and Australia are determined to force Apple to make iPhone NFC ‘open‘ and move everything to the app centric model. If their intention is to drive user uptake, the Japanese market experience proves otherwise. Good luck with that. To most westerners the value of the Japanese mobile payments experience will remain utterly lost, like that old Psychedelic Furs song whine line, “You didn’t leave me anything that I could understand.”
The value of having a digital My Number ID in Wallet is that regions want to promote special services and discounts tied to a resident address. That way local governments can promote differently tailored discounts and campaigns for locals and visitors. JR East for example, is planning to use My Number Card for MaaS transit discounts that promote regional economies. When a payment is made with Suica, the appropriate discount kicks in with the My Number Card verification. The My Number Card + digital payments concept is similar to the 2019~2020 Japanese Government Cashless Consumption Tax Rebate Program. The promise of getting local area based discounts for using transit or buying stuff with Apple Pay is one of the most practical use case scenarios for digital My Number Card that I can think of.
Farther out we might see development of ‘Touchless’ transit gates that incorporate Ultra Wideband technology which is already being used in iOS 15 Wallet for Touchless car keys. It would be cool to simply walk through the gate iPhone in pocket, with Suica taking care of business. I was recently reminded that UWB enhanced gates would greatly benefit those with disabilities. I saw young man in an electric wheelchair going through a JR East station manned gate, the station attendant was holding the reader out for him to tap but his movement was limited. It was difficult for him to hold his iPhone to the Suica reader. A UWB gate would let him zip through unattended at any touchless gate, that’s what barrier free should be about. When you think about it, QR Code apps for transit are just cruel for handicapped users.
On that note…despite all the hand wringing over the rise of code payment apps, even as Apple is flirting about adding code payments to Apple Pay, Japan will continue to be a fascinating place to observe contactless payment trends before they appear in other markets. And even though Apple Pay Japan has lost the cool factor that peaked in 2018 and become mundane, that’s okay. Apple Pay in Japan will continue to be the payment service where you can do things that you cannot do with Apple Pay in any other market. That sounds like fun to me and I look forward to the next 5 years of Apple Pay Japan and hope to write about digital wallet developments…occasionally. Since COVID hit blog traffic has collapsed to the point where I think it might be time to change gears. We shall see.
Until next time stay safe and have a good cashless…er you know what I mean.
Apple Pay Japan Comments Some reader and net comments about using Apple Pay Japan through the years. Tweet or email if you have any experiences you’d like to share and I’ll add them here.
Apple Pay Suica is so convenient it made me wear my watch on my right wrist
The last 2 times I was in Japan, I used Apple Pay with Suica. It is miles ahead of what we have in Singapore, in terms of speed, feel, and experience. And best of all, no app download required!
I changed from Android back to iOS in 2017 mostly due to being able to use Mobile Suica…And this is the real reason I still have to educate people coming to Japan about mobile Suica and putting a debit card into ApplePay and never need an ATM for most things here…Also stop with “Japan is a cash driven society” tropes. I go for weeks not using bills and coins here.
Comment regarding code payment apps vs NFC: Imo Apple and Google Pay are all a payment system needs: it’s quick, easy, and doesn’t require looking like a clown trying to scan a code…Imagine having to scan a code to pay for Suica, it would be a nightmare.
I have no idea why Apple Pay isn’t more widely supported over here. I usually just try and use Suica on my Apple Watch for most things.
The true value (of Apple Watch) is in Apple Pay and Express Transit card. If your city support it especially the latter, it’s a tremendous value.
Truth to be told, I’ve been a user of Japan’s Apple Pay almost since it came out, even thought I don’t live there haha. As a Software Engineer I always was amazed how Japan had a contactless system that you can use seamlessly on transport or store purchases.
It might sound trite, but I am still happy and amazed every time I use Suica on my iPhone. It has been a long road from Edy and Mobile Suica to this point. The next thing for me would be export of my spending for tracking. Not through Suica, but from iOS. And I really wish more Japanese businesses used the Apple Wallet for (reward) cards. When it first debuted I imagined finally getting rid of all my store cards, but it never happened.
When I was in Japan in November, when I looked up my destination via Apple Maps, I got seamless linked to buy a SUICA for my Apple Wallet direct from my credit card. It was pretty slick – 10 second transaction and I had a SUICA in my Apple Wallet.
The best way to use Suica Card on Android devices is to simply buy a new iPhone…
Suica on Watch is just superb. Even better when worn on right hand.
Two great things about my iPhone XS when traveling in #japan: first, SUICA public transport card in Apple wallet and you are able to charge them via Apple Pay wherever you are and second the dual SIM feature to get a traveller SIM like #Ubigi into your phone easily.
Twitter question: Japan peeps, what are your fave “cashless” payment apps? What do you consider the most convenient/useful?
Twitter answer: Suica wallet. Everything else is fucking shit
I want more reward point card support in Wallet that’s easier to use than it is now and supports movie tickets too.
One more for the road: Ken Bolido’s wonderfully informative Apple Pay Japan intro video from 2019