The Japanese Kanji and meaning for Kuyo (供養), apparently has no real direct equivalent in Chinese; I occasionally run across online questions from mainland Chinese exchange students in Japan asking what it means. The standard English translation, ‘memorial’, is worthless and does almost nothing to convey what Kuyo really is.
Kuyo is praying for the spirit of the deceased to be nourished by our earthly efforts so they attain enlightenment. In this way Kuyo is closer to the original ancient Indian Buddhist ceremonies and also elements of Vietnamese Buddhism which suggests that the culture traveled the southern trade routes to Japan.
In traditional Japanese Buddhism the 50th memorial year was the usual cutoff up through the Showa era, but these days the cutoff is the 33rd memorial since most of the people directly connected with the deceased aren’t around to do Kuyo for them, and it’s not the responsibility for later generations.
Japanese Buddhist practitioners say that forgetting is just as important in Kuyo as remembering. That sounds like a contradiction but it’s part of letting go of the past even as one honors it with Kuyo prayers; an important natural progression not only for the living, but also for the spirits of the deceased to leave past lives and become enlightened.
2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the end of the Pacific War. The annual Kuyo ceremony for all victims of the war and prayer for world peace was held on August 15 at the Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery. This years event was drastically scaled down because of COVID but I see it staying small as the number of people with direct connections with the war dwindles away.
When it disappears entirely I hope people will remember to forget, in the right way. I don’t believe that the people of the war generation wanted Kuyo to go on forever or burden future generations with the responsibility. They wanted them to be free from the past and lead happy lives, because that is the ultimate goal of Kuyo: happiness and enlightenment for all beings of the past, present and future.
Rev. Ryusho Jeffus and I were thrown together for a few months in a furious march through the Nichiren Shu priest education system, from the written exam, to Sodo Rin and finally Shingyo Dojo. The powers that be decided I would be the on-call simultaneous interpreter for Ryusho who had no Japanese though it was not an easy job as I had my own studies and practice to do.
Ryusho was kind and cut me free when a lecture or instruction didn’t seem important. “Give me a recap later,” he would say. He was a former Marine and it showed: he was used to receiving orders and dashing around and joked that Shingyo Dojo was “like being in the military again,” even though his health was not robust and it was difficult for him. Twice we had to go to Minobu Hospital to get special asthma medication to get him through the 35 day training.
We had a special Shingyo Dojo shared memory. Near the end as we were to climb Shichimensan, it was touch and go if he could make it but he was absolutely determined to try. I was put in charge as his climbing partner. It was a hard long climb in cool drizzling rain. Just as we walked past the Wakomon Gate, the sun peeked out from a rift in the clouds and we walked in a tunnel of light the last few steps up Shichimensan as though we were entering a mystical world.
That will always be my memory of Ryusho. His memory of me was the next day as hiked down the North Sando trail in beautiful clear spring weather: I walked immediately behind tightly holding onto his obi the whole way down to keep him from tripping and falling, which he nearly did many times from fatigue. But we made it.
It is said that the followers of Nichiren make one last climb up Shichimensan as they leave this world. Gassho Ryusho, I hope you made it okay on your own.
Rev. Ryusho Jeffus passed away on August 11, 2020.
Many festivals are canceled this year because of COVID but you can still go to a local shrine or temple and tie your Tanabata wish to the bamboo. It’s always fun to read what other people have wished for: good health, happy family or the very appropriate ‘go away COVID’.
In the old lunar calendar Tanabata and Obon came together, 7/7 and 7/13 respectively. The western calendar mixed things up in the Meiji era because both events herald the last hurrah of Japanese summer and fall during the western August when calculated by the lunar July. This is why the events are July in Tokyo and August in the countryside.
There are plenty of hot days after Obon but summer feels done, you can feel wisps of autumn in the night air. The Japanese enjoyment of seasons is never the full gaudy glory but in catching the first faint whispers of change.
My nephew passed away in January at the age of 36 from a diabetic coma. Ten years ago he came to Japan with his dad (my older brother), on a trip to Nagano where we visited several hot springs. After his son passed away, my brother said the trip had been a special memory for my nephew. I then promised to offer a memorial prayer when I climbed Shichimensan in the spring.
Then the COVID-19 crisis hit and going anywhere became a nightmare of hurdles: travel restrictions, reduced operating hours, limited transit schedules, getting enough face masks, hand sanitizer, and even toilet paper as those items became hard to obtain.
It turned out to be a memorable trip. This was not because the trip itself was difficult or long. Instead there was an otherworldly quality in attempting to do normal things in a world that just isn’t normal. Japanese authorities never enacted a “lockdown.” Instead, local governments requested self-restraint for businesses and the public in early April.
Throughout the month, wearing face masks at all times outside the home became routine while clear plastic barriers were put up at every store checkout. Cafes and restaurants reduced seats, then they closed altogether or switched to takeout only. Rush-hour trains and the Shinkansen started running empty. By Golden Week vacation, normally a peak time for travel and going out, city streets and major stations were nearly empty and looked like scenes from a science fiction movie.
Going to Shichimen seemed like it would be out of the question until I called Okunoin temple and discovered that travel restrictions were lifted at the end of Golden Week. The temple was open for pilgrimages, offered food and shelter, but the priest on the phone advised me to wear a mask when I was there, and to be careful of leeches on the lower parts of the trail. I decided to take the chance, packed extra masks and disinfectant, purchased a bus ticket online and made my way to Shinjuku bus terminal on a clear Saturday morning.
Anyone who has used Shinjuku bus terminal on a weekend knows how packed and hectic it is. However, on this Saturday morning, the terminal was empty except for the staff who checked and rechecked empty passenger lists. The bus to Minobu was empty, the expressway and rest areas were clear of cars and trucks. At Minobusan, the Kuonji morning service had just three local residents attended to by 20 priests.
And yet, things felt more normal in Minobu than anywhere else. People were running errands, schools were beginning to reopen, construction workers were busy. On the final taxi ride up to the Shichimensan Omotesando trail entrance, the driver pointed at the gravel road and said, “take a good look because this road is going up there soon.” He nodded up the hill where there was another road. “They need that road to remove rock as they bore the new Shinkansen tunnel.” The new linear maglev Chuo Shinkansen line from Tokyo to Nagoya will tunnel through the Southern Alps region very close to Mt. Shichimen.
I did a quick waterfall purification at Bentendo Temple along the Haruki River and then started to climb. There are five rest area “bo” on the climb up the South Sando pilgrimage trail. All of them were closed and quiet except for the sound of bees circling clumps of Rhododendron blossoms. There were also songbirds: wrens, flycatchers and robins. The month of May is the best time to hear them since they are so active.
Trail damage from two typhoons in the past two years was massive in places. Whole valley sides are missing along with pieces of the upper trail. There are new trail sections built around them. At the gate entrance to Keishiin Temple, I noticed something new. Deer had eaten away the bark of old trees seriously damaging them. Deer overpopulation is a big problem in Japanese mountains. Protecting high mountain forests and wildflowers is a growing challenge.
The next morning, the temple priest drummed and chanted the Odaimoku until the first rays of sun shot over the horizon. He then recited the famous Kenji Miyazawa poem “Ame ni mo Makezu,” “Not losing to the rain… Not fettered by desire.” I thought of the quote Nichiren Shonin included at the conclusion of Kanjin Honzon Sho, “When the sky is blue, the land is bright, those who know the Lotus Sutra can see the reasons for the occurrences in the world.”
After morning prayers were finished with a memorial toba for my nephew enshrined on the altar, I said goodbye to the priests and hiked down the North Sando pilgrimage trail. The forest on this side of Shichimensan was untouched by typhoon damage. Returning to Tokyo, I felt exhausted but also refreshed and grounded again. Nichiren Shonin lived in extremely challenging times, but now we are all living in our own challenging times, how comforting it is to follow in the wisdom of his footsteps.
I have noticed recently that Google Maps in Japan has stopped using the traditional Manji 卍 character for marking Buddhist temples and has substituted a plain gray drop pin. All the other religious organizations still get special icons to denote the religious group: Shinto, Christian, Islam and Judaism. Why do Buddhism get the short stick?
Apple Maps and Yahoo Japan Maps both respect local culture and display Buddhist temples the traditional way. Why can’t you? If you study history and culture you will understand that the Manji character has been used in connection with Buddhism throughout Asia for hundreds of years. It has nothing to do with European history or the tragic events of WW II.
As a Buddhist I hope that non-Buddhists strive to respect Buddhist culture as Buddhists strive to respect other cultures and religions. It’s easy to understand why some Westerners might misunderstand this aspect of Japanese culture, but misunderstanding is always an opportunity to learn new things and grow. When you whitewash one religious symbol because somebody who doesn’t come from that culture doesn’t like it or doesn’t understand it, you are promoting cultural discrimination.
I’m sure Google Maps does not want to promote cultural discrimination. Please do the right thing and respect all religions equally.
Love and Kisses, Ata Distance
UPDATE Some readers have suggested this a result of the some preliminary map symbol proposals from the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, however the Manji symbol was retained in a later proposal with the word ‘temple’ included. What’s important to remember is that the map symbol suggestions were merely suggestions intended for non-Japanese language maps at tourist areas and such. It’s also important to note that the Japanese government did not consult with Buddhist organizations. In short what Google has done does not follow Japanese government guideline suggestions or respect local culture. It is censorship.