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WWDC19 iOS 13 Apple Pay Wallet Wish List (U)

Now that full 3rd party NFC access is reportedly coming with iOS 13 tag support for ISO7816, FeliCa and MIFARE, does this mean developers get supercharged Core NFC and PassKit NFC Certificates generously handed out like condoms at a gay sex party? Probably not, the only new things in the rumors are ‘full access’ and ‘ISO7816’, but let’s take a look at some possibilities based on the 3 NFC Forum defined NFC Modes: Card Emulation, Reader/Writer and Peer to Peer.

A12 Bionic NFC powers Express Cards with power reserve and Background Tag Reading on iOS 12 iPhone XS/XR

It’s useful to remember that A12 Bionic powered iPhone is one of the most compelling ‘Global NFC’ devices on the market, with all the important technologies in one package sold everywhere: NFC A-B-F hardware and EMV, FeliCa, MIFARE, PBOC and VAS (value added service protocol) software. Android is fragmented, especially when it comes to FeliCa support.

Apple has invested a lot of time and money to guarantee everything is there and ‘just works’. A12 Bionic added Express Cards with power reserve that support certain NFC transactions without iOS up and running. A12 Bionic also added Background Tag Reading and the ability to read NFC tags ‘out of the box’ without a separate app.

The big frustration for developers has been that iPhone NFC is all dressed up with no place to go. iOS 12 NFC supports Card Emulation and Reader/Writer but severely limits the Secure Element access necessary for Card Emulation with NDA covered PassKit NFC Certificates, while Core NFC is a limited Reader/Writer Mode sub-set.

Card Emulation

New Apple Card Wallet UI (U): After using Apple Card UI flavored Apple Pay Suica in iOS 12.2 with even more tweaks in iOS 12.3, I’m pretty sure that new PassKit controls for Apple Pay Wallet card customization: detailed transactions, summaries, balance payments, new card options and other UI goodies of the recently announced Apple Card, will be made available for all iOS 13 Wallet cards, and possibly some iOS 12.3 Wallet transit and EMV cards as well.

The Apple Card UI and Wallet UI design language in iOS 12.2 and later, is so different from the rest of iOS 12 that I’m surprised nobody in the Apple tech blog space has picked up on it yet. There are lots of useful card options and information, like EMV Transit Card option in iOS 12.3 for Portland TriMet, that can be piped into Wallet cards from the card provider cloud, instead of sitting in a separate app. Customized dynamic card artwork, such as individual Suica card names and commute plan routes displayed on Suica cards in Suica App for example, would be great to have in Wallet.

I do have one request for the iOS 13 Wallet UI: please integrate the separate iPhone and Apple Watch Wallets into a single Wallet. It’s incredibly convenient to control all card options on iPhone instead of fiddling with the tiny Apple Watch screen to recharge a Suica card for example. Suica App manages separate Suica cards on iPhone and Apple Watch incredibly well in one place. It is a super convenient design.

Easy Card Emulation: I am less sure how Apple plans to make card emulation easier for developers:

  • New functions in PassKit that do more
  • Less stringent and easier to obtain PassKit NFC Certificates
  • A combination of the two or
  • Something new altogether

I hope for a combination approach that keeps everything secure while making it easy for developers to add all kinds of non-EMV cards to Wallet, the major categories include…

  • Transit Cards: Transit cards have been tricky because up to now each one has been a kind of custom in-house job by Apple in cooperation with the transit company. HOP and Ventra were already announced to drop in iOS 12 this summer. Hong Kong Smart Octopus (FeliCa) and LA tap (EMV only?) should arrive with the iOS 13 launch in September. It would be great if iOS 13 PassKit makes it easy to add all kinds of native transit cards like Taiwan EasyCARD and Melbourne Myki (both MIFARE) and more to the mix, with Apple having to do less, and have a real transit card coming out party. Unfortunately I don’t see Singapore’s EZ-Link card ever joining the party unless iOS 13 PassKit makes it very easy to support customized technology like the Singapore only CEPAS.
  • Prepaid Reward Cards: There are lots of these everywhere. In Japan we have: Edy, nanaco, WAON (all FeliCa), Dotour (MIFARE), Ueshima (Mag strip) and Starbucks (FeliCa and Mag strip). Some of these have apps that let users attach credit cards to the backend for online recharge. None of them are on Apple Pay but need to be, urgently, to combat manufactured QR code mania stealth marketing. The challenge for Apple here is the same as transit cards: make it easy for developers to do more, with open API access and easy to obtain PassKit NFC Certificates. I suspect one hold up has been that every single one of these prepaid reward cards wants to have an Express Card option to bypass authentication at the reader and iOS 12 Wallet only supports a single Express card at a time. Hopefully iOS 13 Wallet solves the problem.
  • Regular Reward Cards: There are tons of these everywhere. My real wallet has JRE POINT, WAON POINT, Tomod’s, plus a crazy collection of stamp/point cards. How nice it would be if it was super easy for developers to add these to Wallet.
  • ID Cards: This is where ISO7816 tag support fits in. Contactless Student ID cards in iOS 12 were a MIFARE only custom in-house job, transit cards without transit, by Apple in cooperation with Blackboard. Hopefully Apple will greatly extend ID card support in all NFC flavors for many companies and institutions, for all manner of ‘company only’ Wallet ID cards.

Reader/Writer (U)

Android has a huge advantage over iOS because Android apps have the NFC access to do what they want. From RFID Insider:

Below are all the abilities/formats available for writing to a tag:

Business Card
Link/URL
Wi-Fi
Bluetooth
Email
Telephone Number
Geo Location
Launch an Application
Plain Text
SMS

How to Write an NFC Tag RFID Insider

A fully functional Core NFC could do all this, but the important question is how would Apple want to do all this. NFC tags are great technology but they remain deeply geeky for the majority of users. The key is making NFC tags as friendly, easy and secure to use as Apple Pay. This is exactly what Apple plans to do.

At the TRANSACT 2019 conference Jennifer Bailey announced NFC tag Apple Pay.NFC tag Apple Pay works with or without apps. All the user does is tap a NFC tag and Apple Pay takes care of the rest as shown in the demo video using a SmartPlate NFC tag.

The easiest way to think of it is that instead of tapping a reader to pay with Apple Pay, NFC tags for Apple Pay turns iPhone into a reader, in other words iPhone is all you need to Apple Pay at the store.

What does this sound like to you? Yep, this is exactly what QR Codes do and NFC tag Apple Pay is aimed right at the ‘but the store doesn’t need an expensive NFC reader to use QR’ sweet spot that QR Codes have occupied up to now. NFC tag Apple Pay levels the play field, neatly eliminating the QR advantage while offering security that QR Codes cannot match.

Peer to Peer

iOS 12 does not support NFC Peer to Peer. I don’t see that changing in iOS 13 if it can’t be part of a new Apple Pay service. AirDrop already works well across devices that do not have NFC capability. That’s probably enough real world peer to peer for most people.

Summary

The Apple Pay theme for WWDC18 was ‘move Passes into Wallet, get rid of the QR Codes and replace them NFC.’ The new Apple Card UI improvements in Wallet and NFC tag support suggest the Apple Pay theme for WWDC19 will be: ‘move card functionality out of apps and into Wallet cards with new iOS 13 PASSKit controls, or get rid of apps altogether and replace them will all kinds of NFC enabled cards and NFC tags.’

It certainly makes sense. Apple Pay is NFC for the majority of iPhone users, the NFC thing that people use. Apple devoting iOS resources into making card emulation easier and better for 3rd party developers to add all kinds of cards to Wallet, and migrate functions out of separate apps to the Wallet card itself, will give the most bang for the development buck. NFC tag Apple Pay will finally bring NFC tags into the mainstream while eliminating the remaining advantages of QR Codes. It’s going to be a very interesting WWDC for all things Apple Pay.

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WWDC18 Apple Pay

iOS 12 Apple Pay Wallet and PassKit NFC Certificates

Door locks…check, ID…check, transit…oops. The Information got 2 out of 3 right but the transit stuff was a bust. We won’t get the whole iOS 12 and watchOS 5 story until new products are announced this fall but it looks like open developer access to Apple Pay and NFC is coming via an enhanced Core NFC, or some other method to be revealed later this week at WWDC18. A lot of developer heads would turn if Apple completely opens the doors to full 3rd party access with all 3 NFC Modes: Card Emulation, Reader/Writer and Peer to Peer.

The only thing clear so far is that contactless Student ID cards are coming to Apple Pay Wallet. There are lots of FeliCa and MIFARE based ID badge security systems out there but I could not find who provides the technology for Temple University’s OWLCard or John Hopkins J-Card, but there are clues how they will work:

  1. Contactless student ID cards are Stored Value (SV)
  2. Because they are SV cards, they can be recharged

Since they will reside in Apple Pay Wallet this probably means contactless student ID cards can be ‘recharged’ with an Apple Pay credit card instead of running to the nearest ‘refill/recharge’ station. Anytime, Anywhere Recharge.

Sound familiar? My goodness it’s just like Apple Pay Suica that you can recharge on the go and use for JR East Suica coin lockers. The only real difference is that Apple Pay Student ID cards cannot be used for transit. At least not yet. The Apple Pay Developer page says, “discover how to create contactless passes for rewards cards, gift cards, tickets, and more.” Contactless passes for reward cards eh? Sounds like that JRE POINT card in Apple Pay Wallet will be possible after all.

UPDATE: Contactless Passes are made possible with NFC Certificates and appear to the method for some 3rd party access to NFC in iOS 12 and watchOS 5.

Apple Pay and Core NFC Developer News

New NFC Features Coming to iOS 12 and watchOS 5

Apple Pay and Core NFC Developer News

Kevin Lynch offered a sneak peak of new Core NFC functionally/features with contactless Student ID cards coming to iOS 12 and watchOS 5. The key point was the ability to use a Student ID loaded on Apple Watch or iPhone Wallet to “pay for things”, the slides listed many more features: gym, class attendance, laundry and vending machines.

Yep, that sounds like NFC Card Emulation Mode and Reader/Writer Mode support enhancements to Core NFC for developers such as Duke University and Temple University to work with. We should be hearing more about this during WWDC week. Also check out the mentions on the iOS 12 Features page and the watchOS 5 page.

UPDATE 1: It looks like NFC access for developers has not been enhanced. Apple is staying with the case by case Wallet access model they have used so far: EMV contactless for credit cards, FeliCa for Suica/iD/QUICPay, China transit cards, etc., for contactless Student ID cards in Wallet. We may get lucky when the final release iOS 12 ships with new iPhone models this fall. There are always a few iOS goodies that Apple keeps under wraps for a new iPhone rollout.

UPDATE 2: More WWDC18 Apple Pay

UPDATE 3: As usual I spoke too soon. Some easier Apple Pay/Core NFC developer access is coming after all.

watchOS Student ID Cards

Wallet-Student-ID-Cards.png

More WWDC18 Apple Pay and Core NFC Rumors

Japanese IT journalist Junya Suzuki brings his clear-headed expertise and sources to explain what The Information’s muddled Apple to Expand Secure Wireless Chip Beyond Payments piece was really trying to say. It boils down to a simple graphic:The 3 NFC Modes Defined by the NFC Forum

As Suzuki San points out the NFC Forum defines 3 NFC Modes: Card Emulation, Reader/Writer and Peer to Peer. iOS 11 Apple Pay supports Card Emulation and Reader/Writer but severely limits Secure Element access necessary for Card Emulation while Core NFC is just a limited Reader/Writer Mode sub-set. Suica App is one of the very rare 3rd party apps that Apple allows to access the Secure Element (SE) because Apple implemented a ‘virtual FeliCa SE’ in the Apple A-Series Secure Enclave.

This case-by-case special access in lieu of established public frameworks is one reason native transit card support in Apple Pay has been expanding so slowly and those China Apple Pay Transit cards are still in beta. The big WWDC18 question is how much will iOS 12 open Card Emulation access to the Secure Element for developers, in what way, plus all the other missing NFC Mode stuff, in Core NFC.

If Apple unveils a super beefy Core NFC at WWDC18 next week we should see expanded transit card support in Apple Pay and much more explained in earlier posts. New hardware is always welcome at WWDC but a robust set of NFC frameworks and developer tools that fully support all 3 NFC Modes with a high level of security will help ensure a vibrant growing iOS ecosystem in the long run.