WWDC18 Apple Pay

Door locks…check, ID…check, transit…oops. The Information got 2 out of 3 right but the transit stuff was a bust. We won’t get the whole iOS 12 and watchOS 5 story until new products are announced this fall but it looks like open developer access to Apple Pay and NFC is coming via an enhanced Core NFC, or some other method to be revealed later this week at WWDC18. A lot of developer heads would turn if Apple completely opens the doors to full 3rd party access with all 3 NFC Modes: Card Emulation, Reader/Writer and Peer to Peer.

The only thing clear so far is that contactless Student ID cards are coming to Apple Pay Wallet. There are lots of FeliCa and MIFARE based ID badge security systems out there but I could not find who provides the technology for Temple University’s OWLCard or John Hopkins J-Card, but there are clues how they will work:

  1. Contactless student ID cards are Stored Value (SV)
  2. Because they are SV cards, they can be recharged

Since they will reside in Apple Pay Wallet this probably means contactless student ID cards can be ‘recharged’ with an Apple Pay credit card instead of running to the nearest ‘refill/recharge’ station. Anytime, Anywhere Recharge.

Sound familiar? My goodness it’s just like Apple Pay Suica that you can recharge on the go and use for JR East Suica coin lockers. The only real difference is that Apple Pay Student ID cards cannot be used for transit. At least not yet. The Apple Pay Developer page says, “discover how to create contactless passes for rewards cards, gift cards, tickets, and more.” Contactless passes for reward cards eh? Sounds like that JRE POINT card in Apple Pay Wallet will be possible after all.

UPDATE: Contactless Passes are made possible with NFC Certificates and appear to the method for some 3rd party access to NFC in iOS 12 and watchOS 5.

Apple Pay and Core NFC Developer News

New NFC Features Coming to iOS 12 and watchOS 5

Apple Pay and Core NFC Developer News

Kevin Lynch offered a sneak peak of new Core NFC functionally/features with contactless Student ID cards coming to iOS 12 and watchOS 5. The key point was the ability to use a Student ID loaded on Apple Watch or iPhone Wallet to “pay for things”, the slides listed many more features: gym, class attendance, laundry and vending machines.

Yep, that sounds like NFC Card Emulation Mode and Reader/Writer Mode support enhancements to Core NFC for developers such as Duke University and Temple University to work with. We should be hearing more about this during WWDC week. Also check out the mentions on the iOS 12 Features page and the watchOS 5 page.

UPDATE 1: It looks like NFC access for developers has not been enhanced. Apple is staying with the case by case Wallet access model they have used so far: EMV contactless for credit cards, FeliCa for Suica/iD/QUICPay, China transit cards, etc., for contactless Student ID cards in Wallet. We may get lucky when the final release iOS 12 ships with new iPhone models this fall. There are always a few iOS goodies that Apple keeps under wraps for a new iPhone rollout.

UPDATE 2: More WWDC18 Apple Pay

UPDATE 3: As usual I spoke too soon. Some easier Apple Pay/Core NFC developer access is coming after all.

watchOS Student ID Cards


More WWDC18 Apple Pay and Core NFC Rumors

The 3 NFC Modes Defined by the NFC Forum

Japanese IT journalist Junya Suzuki brings his clear-headed expertise and sources to explain what The Information’s muddled Apple to Expand Secure Wireless Chip Beyond Payments piece was really trying to say. It boils down to a simple graphic:

As Suzuki San points out the NFC Forum defines 3 NFC Modes: Card Emulation, Reader/Writer and Peer to Peer. iOS 11 Apple Pay supports Card Emulation and Reader/Writer but severely limits Secure Element access necessary for Card Emulation while Core NFC is just a limited Reader/Writer Mode sub-set. Suica App is one of the very rare 3rd party apps that Apple allows to access the Secure Element (SE) because Apple implemented a ‘virtual FeliCa SE’ in the Apple A-Series Secure Enclave.

This case-by-case special access in lieu of established public frameworks is one reason native transit card support in Apple Pay has been expanding so slowly and those China Apple Pay Transit cards are still in beta. The big WWDC18 question is how much will iOS 12 open Card Emulation access to the Secure Element for developers, in what way, plus all the other missing NFC Mode stuff, in Core NFC.

If Apple unveils a super beefy Core NFC at WWDC18 next week we should see expanded transit card support in Apple Pay and much more explained in earlier posts. New hardware is always welcome at WWDC but a robust set of NFC frameworks and developer tools that fully support all 3 NFC Modes with a high level of security will help ensure a vibrant growing iOS ecosystem in the long run.

Muddled WWDC18 Apple Pay Rumors

The Information piece confused software with hardware
Screenshot of The Information

The Information article quoted in reports by 9to5 Mac and Apple Insider is a strange piece. It reads like the reporters don’t know if they are writing about hardware or software. Their key take away is: “The change to the near-field communication, or NFC, chip, which is expected to be announced next month, could pave the way for people to use iPhones for other security-sensitive interactions, from paying transit fares and opening car doors to verifying their identity in other ways.”

Changes to the NFC chip? Apple Pay Suica and Apple Pay Express Transit cards for Beijing and Shanghai already pay transit fares securely…Hello? Benjamin Mayo muddies the water further in his sloppy 9to5 Mac post, corrections in parentheses:

The Information says Apple is keen on replacing transit cards…it has discussed plans (way back in 2014) with Cubic. In the UK, iPhone customers can already travel on the Underground just by tapping their phone on the contactless terminals (plain old cash register credit card EMV contactless not the native MIFARE based Oyster card system built and operated by Cubic). iPhone 7 (iPhone 8 and iPhone X) includes a FeliCa chip (wrong, Apple licensed FeliCa and implemented it in the Apple A-Series Secure Element combined with a NFC A-B-F chip from NXP) to achieve a similar result for the transit infrastructure in Japan. Both of these existing integrations rely on thin layers above the usual Apple Pay protocols to function (what does this mean? any idiot can say this and sound like an expert).

It’s clear The Information writers mean more functionality is coming for Core NFC which debuted with limited capability in iOS 11. Later on the article says, “Apple will launch the latest version of its iPhone operating system, likely called iOS 12. Users of most iPhones made in 2014 or later will be able to activate these capabilities through a software update.” Developers would be a better choice here: developers will create the new NFC savvy software users will activate via, one assumes, a more robust iOS 12 Apple Pay Wallet and apps.

What does this all mean? A list of NFC functions on the FeliCa Networks site suggest what may be coming to iOS 12 Apple Pay Wallet: members card with points and coupons, mobile keys, mobile ticketing.

Mobile FeliCa functions can include members cards-mobile keys-mobile tickets

Door locks….check. It would be nice to go outside for a walk without lugging my fathers overgrown key chain to buzz myself back into his apartment building. Apple Watch with a custom Apple Pay NFC card would be a welcome solution. Hong Kong residents already have this with the FeliCa based Octopus card, current Core NFC limitations could be one reason why Samsung Pay beat out Apple Pay for Smart Octopus.

NFC points cards would help stop the plastic

Point cards…check. In Japan for example, JR East and WAON issue plastic member point cards so that customers can still get points regardless of the payment method: cash, card, digital wallet, etc. It’s a pain paying with Apple Pay while still having to dig a plastic point card out of the wallet standing in line at the convenience store with arms full of stuff. How nice it would be to have that JRE POINT card and more sitting in the iOS 12 Wallet with Apple Pay instead of bulking up my real wallet.

On the transit side Apple already has FeliCa (Suica, iD, QUICPay) and China Express Transit cards for Beijing and Shanghai with more coming. It would be great if iOS 12 NFC changes makes it easier to add other FeliCa transit cards such as Smart Octopus and MIFARE based T-Money (Seoul), Oyster (London) Clipper (San Jose) and Compass Card (Vancouver) or even the Singapore only CEPAS used in EZ-Link to Apple Pay. Native transit cards on smart devices are always going to be much faster and convenient than EMV contactless will ever be.