Multiple Secure Element domains for Mobile FeliCa 4.1

FeliCa Dude posted a series of deeply interesting tweets relating to Mobile FeliCa 4.1 changes. He had earlier complained of Mobile PASMO lack of Pixel 5 support and it now appears that multiple Secure Element domain support in Mobile FeliCa 4.1 was a reason for that delay. This is an fascinating development but what is it there for?

On a Mobile FeliCa 4.1 Google Pixel device Google has it’s own secure element domain

I assume his tweeted profile is for a Pixel device, hence the FeliCa Networks secure element (SE) + Google SE references. In this context it appears that Google ‘owns’ the Mobile FeliCa SE and which applets load, in other works FeliCa Networks needs permission from Google to load applets on a Google device SE. Devices come pre-loaded as always so customers simply use it out of the box, but the implication is that FeliCa Networks and the SE domain ‘owner’ can load/delete Java Card applets and even update Mobile FeliCa over the air. Whether they actually use this functionality or not is another story.

FeliCa Dude thinks multiple secure element domains are also there to support Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) plans for a digital version of My Number Card (Individual Number Card) for smartphones using the Mobile FeliCa eSE, even though the current plastic card uses NFC-B. It’s strange but exciting to ponder the possibilities of a Mobile FeliCa 4.1 secure element that supports non-FeliCa protocols.

One of the big changes of Mobile FeliCa 4.0 was that it introduced loading a FeliCa applet on any approved secure element. This change frees Android device manufacturers from having to purchase FeliCa chips from the FeliCa Networks supply chain. It basically gives Android devices the same custom secure element arrangement Apple has had since the iPhone 7 Apple Japan Pay launch in 2016.

I asked FeliCa Dude if the Mobile FeliCa 4.1 development is also related to next generation FeliCa feature support used for Suica 2 in1 cards coming this month, in particular the new Extended Overlap Service. He says this is unlikely but I hope we discover other pleasant surprises as intrepid explorers dig into Mobile FeliCa 4.1 details.

MIC digital My Number Card proposal for smartphones

T-POINT? We don’t need no stinkin’ T-POINT

In the ephemeral COVID era we live in assurance don’t come easy, especially with JP cashless market data. Half the fun is taking the crumbs you find, a 1000 person web survey here and there, and seeing what trends you can tease out of it.

First of all the usual disclaimer: cashless use is highly regional, depending on transit use and many other factors like age group, shopping habits, and reward points. It’s this last item that makes the CreditCard no Yomimono survey so interesting.

Reward points are the dangling carrot all Japanese cashless players use to drive card use. New comers like PayPay use them shamelessly to capture customers and build their platform. Japanese customers love to play the ‘what combo gets me the most points’ game but they are also notoriously cold shoulder when they feel gypped. And once they drop something, they never come back.

The survey skips over regional point systems like JRE POINT (though I think that’s debatable considering Mobile Suica on Apple Pay/Google Pay/Osaifu Keitai), and examines ‘national’ point systems: d POINT, T-POINT, Rakuten POINT and PONTA with a simple question. Which one do you use? 2,271 people said:

  • Rakuten POINT: 59.9%
  • d POINT: 18.4%
  • T-POINT: 14.4%
  • PONTA: 7.3%

It’s clear to see why JR East cut that special deal for Rakuten Pay Suica: the different online Rakuten businesses for shopping, travel, etc. mesh well and there are a lot of people invested in Rakuten POINT. The deal puts Super Suica in a good 2021 launch position for new local transit partners, MaaS NFC Tag Suica and more as the platform grows.

It’s a bittersweet deal however for JRE POINT. It’s a real shame and missed opportunity that the major IC transit cards (Suica, ICOCA, TOICA, etc.) are compatible for transit and eMoney, but not for points. Even if they all kept their own point branding and simply offered 1=1 point exchanges, people would use them more.

The decline of T-POINT is not surprising, dropping from 60% in a 2015 survey. Culture Convenience Club (CCC) and SoftBank ran T-POINT into the ground and it’s not coming back. It’s only a matter of time before SoftBank kisses T-POINT (and CCC) goodbye and unveils PayPay POINT.

PONTA is another major that has not gained much traction so far but this might change with the recent LAWSON Bank PONTA Plus branded credit card push. All of the point systems need to add Apple VAS and Google SmartPay support and drive acceptance on the merchant POS level. The less we have to deal with separate plastic point cards, all the better.

Mobile PASMO Q&A

What is Mobile PASMO?
Mobile PASMO is an app service identical to Mobile Suica, for Android v6 Osaifu Keitai devices or later, and iPhone 8 / Apple Watch 3 and later running iOS 14 / Watch OS 7 later this year. Users can recharge a virtual PASMO card on the device with a registered credit card, purchase or renew commute plans, view use history, restore the PASMO card from the cloud in case of a lost device, PASMO bus transit users can also earn ‘Bus Toku’ points. Details are listed on the Mobile PASMO site (Japanese only).

Is it compatible with Google Pay? (Updated)
Not at this time. Users need to be careful: active Google Pay blocks Mobile PASMO transactions. Bank cards are limited to Mobile PASMO app registered credit cards: American Express, JCB, Mastercard, Visa. Credit card registration is processed by PASMO and seems to be the weakest part of the system where users are experiencing the most trouble (the rest of the system appears to be licensed Mobile Suica IT assets). Only Japanese issue cards are accepted.

Is the Mobile PASMO app multi-lingual? (Updated)
Everything is Japanese language only. Android users can download the Mobile PASMO app on Google Play.

Can I use Mobile Suica and Mobile PASMO on the same device? (Updated)
Only 6 recent Osaifu Keitai Type 1 devices support multiple transit card installs. On older Type 2 devices you can only install one and have to choose. As FeliCa Dude explains in his excellent Reddit post, “Mobile PASMO: the “me-too” that’s all about them, and not you” the Mobile FeliCa Android stack on older FeliCa chip devices isn’t like Apple Pay and does not support multiple transit cards or the ability to select one for Express Transit. Type 1 devices updated to Osaifu Ketai 8.2.1 can set one (and only one) ‘main card’ for Express Transit use, with Mobile Suica and Mobile PASMO on the same device. A full downloadable PDF device list of Type 1 (Mobile Suica and Mobile PASMO), Type 2 (Mobile Suica or Mobile PASMO), Type 3 (Mobile Suica).

If Mobile Suica and Mobile PASMO are basically the same, does it matter which one I use?
It all comes down to commuter pass use, if you live in the Suica/PASMO region and use a JR East line on any part of your commute, Mobile Suica is the best choice that gives you the most options on Apple Pay and Google Pay. If you do not ride a JR East line as part of your commute, you must choose Mobile PASMO for commuter pass use.

When will PASMO be available on Apple Pay? (Updated)
Apple Pay PASMO launched October 6.

Isn’t next generation ‘2 cards in 1’ Suica supposed to fix this redundancy? (Updated)
Mobile PASMO throws cold water on the one big happy mobile transit family concept of next generation Suica: sharing resources instead of “me too” fiefdoms. Even if the new card architecture fixes all the current shortcomings, which it is supposed to do, nothing can fix the selfish mindset of transit companies who refuse to cooperate. As FeliCa Dude points out, Mobile PASMO is the result of JR East and PASMO Association failing to cooperate and mutually host commute plans.

UPDATE: Japanese programmers digging into Mobile PASMO details find that PASMO licensed Mobile Suica IT assets for Mobile PASMO service. This makes a lot of sense and is an encouraging sign that Mobile Suica cloud resources will be licensed to host other transit IC cards for Mobile ICOCA, TOICA, manaca, etc.

UPDATE 2: Junya Suzuki posted an article with more Mobile PASMO system details. One leading company in the PASMO Association (Tobu, Keio or Odakyu) licensed Mobile Suica assets and technology from JR East. Cut and paste IT. As said above, this is encouraging because other transit companies (JR West, JR Central et al) can license Mobile Suica assets and park it on whatever cloud service they want: AWS, Azure, NTT Data and so on. Mobile plumbing for connecting Apple Pay and Google Pay is already in place.

Pixel 4 goes cheap instead of deep

As I tweeted earlier today, the updated Pixel Phone Help hardware pages tell the whole story: if you purchased your Pixel 4, 3a or 3 phone in Japan, a FeliCa chip is located in the same area as the NFC.

This is a little misleading because as FeliCa Dude pointed out in tweets, the Pixel 3 uses the global NFC PN81B ‘all in one chip’ from NXP. There is no separate ‘FeliCa chip’:

All the Pixel 3 devices have an eSE…A teardown of the global edition Pixel 3 XL (G013C) reveals a <NXP> PN81B.

FeliCa Dude

Pixel 4 teardowns will certainly reveal a PN81B or similar all in one NFC chip from NXP. Google could have gone global NFC with Pixel 4 and given Android users everywhere access to Google Pay Suica. Unfortunately Google went cheap instead of deep, sticking with the same Pixel 3 policy of only buying FeliCa keys for JP Pixel models.

Why is Google turning off FeliCa on Pixel models outside of Japan? I doubt it is a licensing restriction because the whole point of NXP PN81 is having all the global NFC licensing pieces, NFC A-B-F/EMV/FeliCa/MIFARE, all on one chip, all ready to go. It could have something to do with Google Pay Japan. For Apple Pay Japan, Apple licensed all the necessary technology and built it into their own Apple Pay.

Instead of that approach Google Pay Japan is a kind of candy wrapper around the existing ‘Osaifu Keitai’ software from Docomo and FeliCa Networks, and all of the existing Osaifu Keitai apps from Mobile Suica to iD to QUICPay. That’s why having a ‘Osaifu Keitai’ Android device is a requirement for using Google Pay Japan. Perhaps Google is content in candy wrapping things instead of retooling it all as basic Google Pay functionality and letting Android OEMs benefit from that.

Whatever the reason, the moral of this story is that Google Pay Suica will not be a transit option for inbound Android users during the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. Unfortunately, the Android equivalent of the global NFC iPhone has yet to appear.

UPDATE
Pixel 4/4a all have the same NFC hardware and Mobile FeliCa software, but non-JP models block Mobile FeliCa apps from running.

NTT Docomo Celebrates Osaifu Keitai 15th Anniversary

It all started today, July 1, 2004, when NTT Docomo launched the iMode FeliCa mobile wallet, called Osaifu Keitai in Japanese. It was the world’s first mobile payment platform, a tremendous achievement and forerunner to the Apple Pay and Google Pay services we have today. To celebrate the anniversary Docomo has lined up a bunch of point campaigns for all the Osaifu Keitai payment networks: Mobile Suica, iD, QUICPay, WAON, nanaco, Edy. Unfortunately Apple Pay users are only eligible for iD and QUICPay (details will be available later).

Docomo also has a nifty anniversary page highlighting all the Osaifu Keitai payment networks, when you tap or click the payment icon it plays the feedback sound you hear at the register. The Suica sound is the original one we heard way back in 2006, which you don’t hear anymore. It’s a fun way to celebrate the trailblazing mobile payment platform that Docomo and Sony invented.