JR East announced cloud based Suica and extended coverage for the Tohoku region, going online with 44 stations in early 2023 and closing some major service gaps around the same time that Mobile ICOCA is due to launch. This same cloud system is expected to drive JR East QR closed loop ticketing and MaaS Suica based services and also syncs with the Mobile ICOCA aim of delivering MaaS services in the JR West region.
You might think that JR East has installed Suica gates in every station but this is not the case: as of 2018 Suica is installed in roughly half of JR East’s 1667 stations with these station additions the first in more than 4 years. The reason is cost. Unmanned stations have simple Suica validators but the cost of hard wiring these to the Suica data center is an obstacle. Fast local processing is one of the advantages of Suica but the dedicated network backbone costs for linking and syncing with JR East servers doesn’t come cheap.
The new internet cloud based Suica backend will calculate fares centrally rather than on each gate. The trade off is slightly slower speeds with the benefit of lower installation and maintenance costs so that Suica can easily be installed anywhere. Japanese tech journalist Junya Suzuki tweeted that probably half of Suica transaction processing would remain local with half of the fare processing in Suica cloud. This means the local Suica card SF transaction is partially offloaded by the gate to a distributed closed loop fare processing network via a fast reliable internet connection. It also means that stations with heavy traffic keep fare processing on the gate.
The constant drip of privacy concerns regarding social networks and QR payment systems like Line Pay, and where user transaction data is stored, makes the old JR East crisis look small and silly. Everything is more connected now in unexpected ways than even just 8 years ago.
It doesn’t matter how secure transaction protocols are when user transaction record data is stored on leaky servers or sold to outsiders for profit. I wrote about this earlier, the so called popularity of QR Code payment services in Japan is really about big data. In that vein we have a timely blog post on Open Loop ltransit rider privacy from Transit Center.
For a professional advocacy organization dedicated ‘to improve public transit,’ the Transit Center privacy publication is surprisingly amateurish. It raises valid concerns but reads like open loop advertising from credit card companies (Transit Center soft sponsors?), where open loop is the golden cure-all future, and the only future at that, of every transit ill with closed loop invariably portrayed as a dead era of tokens, punchcards and mag strip swipe cards. They also make MTA seem like the only transit system in America that matters because idiosyncratic MTA problems apply everywhere. Right? Wrong. Let’s take a look at their privacy blog post…<<with comments>>.
Transit agencies around the country are adopting a new generation of fare payment systems. Agencies including New York’s MTA, Boston’s MBTA, and Houston METRO are in the process of switching to what’s known as “open-loop” systems that enable riders to tap into the system using digital wallets on their phones or with their credit cards…
These technologies come with clear benefits for riders, but they also carry the risk of exposing more personal data…
<<here it comes>>
The switch to these new fare payment technologies can accelerate access to riders’ trip data by other government agencies. In New York, for instance, individuals’ MTA trip data can be retrieved much faster with the new OMNY system than with the older MetroCard system…
<<retrieve trip data quickly on a fare system where users don’t tap out…what? privacy concerns are not just government agencies btw with multiple 3rd party companies handling and processing transit fare data…which brings us to>>
The increased involvement of third parties in fare payment underscores the need for better data collection and management policies within transit agencies.
<<better as in more big data details?>>
How to Implement the Next Generation of Fare Payment Without Shredding Riders’ Privacy
Anybody experienced in dealing with bank and card company customer service could see this coming. Bank and transit operating cultures are different and they don’t mix well with outside companies running the transit gate fare concession. If you think transit privacy is a concern now, wait until face recognition transit gates become the next transit future thing.
Let’s make this simple. Open Loop (EMV and QR) and bank card EMV Closed Loop means that banks and outside payment platforms run their services at the fare gates They have transit user data, as does the transit company, so does the fare system management subcontractor like Cubic. The more places data is stored the more it’s gonna leak. This is exactly what is playing out in Japan right now because Line Pay Japan user transaction data is stored in South Korea which does not, putting it mildly, have a good secure data reputation.
That doesn’t mean that closed loop is automatically more secure, but keeping data in-house with its own closed loop transaction card in the country of origin, as JR East does for Mobile Suica, does mean that outside company access is tightly controlled. At the very least there is only one company in the country of origin to take the blame when something leaks, and only one place to plug it.
2 in 1 Commuter Passes: a JR East Suica commuter pass and a region affiliate commuter pass
2 in 1 Points: JRE POINT and region affiliate transit points
Other region affiliate services: a totra card for disabled users with special discount fares/subsidies, welfare points (starting April 2021) for elder and disabled transit users
…all in one Suica card. This is more important that it seems and solves some long standing problems. Let’s look at the situation with the wonderfully useful Transit IC card chart created by Wiki user ButuCC.
The core square contains the 10 mutual use ‘Transit IC’ cards with many IC arrows pointing to region transit cards outside of the square. This means the core Transit IC cards work on those local transit systems but only one way. There are no IC arrows pointing in towards the core region because there are no regional transit cards mutually compatible with all core Transit IC cards…until now: totra Suica is the first region transit card that works nationwide.
2 in 1 Suica combines the ‘outside the square’ region card with the core Suica card. totra is a Suica card, mutually compatible with all Transit IC, but also a local transit card with new services built on Suica infrastructure. One example: the first transit IC card for disabled users that automatically gives them the local region discount fare and subsidy, but only for the totra fare region, not outside it. Disabled fares are highly regional with local prefecture and city governments providing transit services and fare discounts. It’s a trade off but it does provide a transit IC card option for disabled users instead of paper tickets with a ID card for the first time.
Super Suica or something else? So is this Super Suica or not? The totra Suica logo explains some of what is going on inside the card. There is a ‘+’ mark which indicates ‘Suica plus affiliate’ that combines Suica with an attached financial service like credit card recharge. This is the Suica plus mark you see on all Mobile Suica cards including Mizuho Suica (iOS) and Rakuten Suica (Android).
There is also a ‘••’ mark which indicates FeliCa Pocket services, FeliCa applets on a physical card or Osaifu Keitai card that provide different services in a single card (transit, points, ID, etc.). You can see the ‘••’ Suica logo on Rinkai Suica and Monorail Suica and the both marks on the Suica/credit card combos like VIEW. The Rinkai Suica design also looks like totra which uses a similar blue left instead of right trapezoid.
FeliCa Dude points out in an interesting Twitter thread with treastrain that 2 in 1 is a new kind of Suica plus affiliate card issued outside of JR East with no financial service attached to it. As treastrain notes, it’s weird that Suica plus is being used for a rechargeable ¥500 deposit Suica with no attached credit card, but we are in uncharted territory with new features to come.
Suica 2 in 1 is the first Suica based on the new FeliCa Standard SD2 card. We can’t see exactly how FeliCa SD2 is used to deliver 2 in 1 functionality but FeliCa Dude gives us an excellent rundown of 2 important additions: Extended Overlap Service (points and passes) and Value Limited Purse Service (purse). These are tools for JR East and the other Transit IC operators to integrate services in new ways, implement their own version of 2 in 1, raise the balance limit and more. The new FeliCa SD2 features have big implications. Like all things the Super part of Super Suica depends on what JR East and the other CJRC members (Congress of Japanese Railway Cybernetics) mutually accomplish using these new FeliCa and Suica parts. The more region transit cards that migrate and merge inside the Transit IC square while addressing regional needs, the better.
What about mobile? It’s important to remember that 2 in 1 Suica extends Transit IC coverage, including Mobile Suica and Mobile PASMO, into new transit areas. 2 in 1 Suica is limited to plastic issue at this point so those users do not have a mobile option. 2 in 1 Mobile Suica service depends on resolving 4 things:
Will Mobile FeliCa be upgraded with the new FeliCa SD2 functions?
Will Mobile FeliCa be updated on Osaifu Keitai and Apple devices?
Will JR East manage Mobile Suica card issue for outside transit companies
Is there an (local 2 in 1 Suica transit card) app for that?
Mobile Suica already hosts Suica ‘+’ cards (Mizuho Suica and Rakuten Suica) and FeliCa Pocket services are designed for physical cards and mobile. 2 in 1 is a new card so the first hurdle is upgrading Mobile FeliCa to support SD2 card features and pushing that update to devices.
FeliCa Dude posted some tweets that suggest Mobile FeliCa 4.x on Android devices can be updated but industry practice on the Android side so far has been doing a pre-install and leaving it at that. If users want newer Mobile FeliCa features, get a new device. Apple can certainly update Mobile FeliCa on their custom embedded secure element, but will they?If nothing else I think the recent addition of Garmin Pay Suica and Fitbit Pay Suica indicates that FeliCa Networks is getting better at pushing new services from Mobile FeliCa Cloud.
The app question is another hurdle and a bit complicated. The whole 2 in 1 concept means 2 different managed services are bundled in a single card. Who manages what? While it makes sense to add 2 in 1 Suica non-JR East local commuter routes for purchase and renewal in Mobile Suica and Suica App, local area transit point account management needs to be handled in a separate app. Does each 2 in 1 Suica locale handle that? That approach makes sense but JR East could certainly help with coordinating support and leveraging common resources and infrastructure to eliminate redundancy.
Summary 2021 is only the start line for 2 in 1 Suica with totra and Iwate Green Card. 2022 will see 6 more 2 in1 Suica cards, probably more, it will be the real coming out year. By then Mobile ICOCA will be on the horizon, I think we’ll know if 2 in 1 is the start of Super Suica…or not. If the other Transit IC partners simply copy what JR East is doing with 2 in 1 region cards, that will be super enough for the people who live, work and go to school in those regions.
UPDATE 4-20: JR East announced a Suica Station Ticket Rebate Campaign: 140 JRE POINT reward with ¥1,000 station mall shopping. The campaign runs until May 31 but JR East should really make this standard.
The 2 hour station ticket costs ¥140 (Kanto district in-station malls)~¥150 (everywhere else) and covers all Suica gated stations (flap gate stations). Non-JR East stations, JR East stations off the Suica grid and Shinkansen gated areas inside JR East stations are not supported.
Suica station tickets are the transit IC equivalent of paper platform tickets. The origin was for tearful platform farewells seen in old classic movies, but the Suica version is more about enticing people to shop and use station malls. Ticketless is nice but I wish JR East had also figured out a way to waive the fee with Suica purchases over a certain amount, like free parking vouchers. That would be the ultimate station mall shopping motivation. (The update at the top of the post covers just this)
Suica has been around since 2001, what took JR East so long to do ticketless station admission? The background details are interesting. Paper station platform tickets are completely separate from regular tickets and clearly marked, but there is no way for the entry transit gate point to determine the difference between using Suica for transit or just stopping at the station. This can be a problem when there is a major stoppage due to weather, earthquake, etc. and station staff have to deal with large numbers of people stuck in the station or forced to use another line. Fortunately this doesn’t happen often, but when it does it’a a problem.
The details clearly state that dual commuter passes are supported: one for totra transit partners, one for JR East. 2 in 1 is for reward points too and there are also totra card points, but it’s not clear yet how these plug into or can be exchanged for JRE POINT. The launch is only for plastic which is expected as 2 in 1 Suica is a whole new Suica architecture powered by a new FeliCa chip, it will take time to integrate the new features into Mobile Suica. I suspect a first step is taking place during the big March 20~21 Mobile Suica service maintenance downtime.
2 in 1 totra Suica is compatible with all other Transit IC regions and covers Nasu, Nikko and other popular Tochigi sightseeing areas. The next Suica 2 in 1 launch is March 27 for Iwate Green Pass that will cover Iwate Kotsu bus lines. All other Suica 2 in 1 launches for 5 more cards will be in March 2022.