One week in

Apple Pay Octopus has been in service for a week so I asked for some Apple Watch field impressions on Twitter. Overall, users seem pretty impressed:

I am using it daily and it is really out of this world. I use it on my watch and now I can literally go out for a jog or hike with just wearing the watch.

It works perfectly on my AW so far. But from I’ve heard on LIHKG, there some users facing the difficulties on the express mode. Mostly are requiring passcode when going through the gate.

It’s mostly positive. However there’re times where the reader isn’t sensitive enough and need to linger the watch longer. Also going to work first thing in the morning but forgetting to enter pass code in the apple watch is frustrating since it doesn’t inform you need to unlock.

Been using AW Octopus everyday. Use cases include MTR, tram, ferry, 7-11, eating meals at all sorts of restaurants like Tai Hing, Ki’s Roasted Goose, Pret etc. Octopus on Apple Pay drastically improved HK’s cashless experience. It’s definitely okay for me to go out with only AW. Not even with my phone. Feels really good. The speed of payment is also very remarkable. However, the reader in Tai Hing seems to need an extra second to detect my AW, not sure why. Plus AW users might want to wear it on the right wrist, which makes passing MTR gates easier.

Using it everywhere. All good and same speed as physical card, expect bus and some small shops were like a heartbeat slower. Also twice there was no “ping” confirmation sound. Tried AW on my right for mtr, its only good for that, imo left is more comfy for other occasions…

… after so many years of waiting, finally an apple pay suica experience in HK.

You can follow the Twitter thread here. I have noticed a few small gate lag hiccups on my Apple Watch Suica since upgrading to watchOS 6.2.5/6.2.6. The lag is especially noticeable if a workout is in progress. The passcode request at the gate could indicate that Express Transit is deactivated somewhere along the way, either by a loose band activating the wrist detector into thinking Apple Watch was taken off the wrist, or it could be something else.

My Apple Watch insisted that I create a 6 digit passcode recently and disabled the 4 digit passcode option for a few days. Who knows, the passcode requests that some HK users are seeing could be a watchOS bug or an Octopus reader side issue that can be addressed with a firmware update.

Apple Watch is still prone to OS version performance issues that disappeared from iPhone with A12 Bionic and Express Transit with power reserve. Apple Pay transactions on A12 Bionic and later bypass most of the iOS layer and are directly handled in the A12/A13 Bionic Secure Enclave and Secure Element. It makes a big performance difference for Suica and Octopus.

Hopefully the next watchOS update will improve Suica and Octopus performance. Better yet let’s hope that Apple Watch 6 introduces a Apple S6 chip with Express Transit with power reserve. That would solve the watchOS version NFC performance issues for good, just like it did for iPhone.

A12/A13 Bionic makes a big difference in NFC performance,
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Next Up: Google Pay Octopus or Garmin Pay Octopus?

Apple Pay Octopus launch day was a big success, so successful that Octopus apologized for their servers buckling under the demand. What’s next for Octopus, Google Pay? There are some possibilities but when it comes to Android there is the matter of the Secure Element (SE), where it resides and what transaction protocols are supported.

From the NFC hardware angle everything has been ready to go on all smartphone hardware for years, NFC A-B-F is required for NFC certification. The problem has been on the SE side, the black box where all the transaction magic happens. From Global Platform the SE certification organization:

A SE is a tamper-resistant platform (typically a one chip secure microcontroller) capable of securely hosting applications and their confidential and cryptographic data (for example cryptographic keys) in accordance with the rules and security requirements set by well-identified trusted authorities.

There are different form factors of SE: embedded and integrated SEs, SIM/UICC, smart microSD as well as smart cards. SEs exist in different form factors to address the requirements of different business implementations and market needs.

Global Platform Introduction to Secure Elements

SE Wars and Google HCE ‘SE Pie in the Sky’
In the pre-Apple Pay mobile carrier hardware era, carriers used SE SIM or embedded Secure Elements (eSE) + SIM combos that chained customers to service contracts for the privilege of using mobile payments. This is the classic Osaifu-Keitai textbook maneuver pioneered by NTT Docomo: leave those pesky SIM Free whiners in the cold world of plastic cards and hard cash, or crippled digital wallets until they give up and buy an overpriced carrier SIM. This brain dead approach is one reason why Mobile FeliCa ended up being ridiculed as ‘galapagos technology’ even though everybody copied it with inferior crappy me-too products.

This carrier SE hostage situation, i.e. the Mobile Wallet SE Wars, led Apple and Google to follow different strategies to address the problem.

The Apple Pay Way
Apple’s answer of course was Apple Pay. A unique in house strategy of putting a Global Platform certified Secure Element in their A Series/S Series chips then building it out from there. Most eSE go on the NFC controller, but doing it the Apple in-house way has advantages over a NFC chip vendor bundle: control of the eSE applets and ability to update them and the Apple eSE for new protocols in iOS updates. We saw this in action with the addition of FeliCa in 2016, PBOC in 2017 and MIFARE in 2018. We may even see the addition of Ultra Wideband (UWB) Touchless in iOS 14.

What iOS 14 could look like with QR and UWB support

The Google Pay Way
Google’s answer to the carrier owned SE problem was the more convoluted evolution from Google Wallet (2011) to Android Pay (2015) and finally Google Pay (2018). Google first salvo was Host Card Emulation (HCE): “NFC card emulation without a secure element” hosted on Google’s cloud. Later on Google attempted to do the same for FeliCa with HCE-F.

But then something happened that put an end to all this: Google decided to get into the hardware business. And now we have Google Pay and Google Pixel with it’s own embedded Secure Element (eSE). With Pixel, Google decided they didn’t want to be the Secure Element cloud provider for every Android OEM out there especially when the Chinese OEMS are all rolling their own eSE based digital wallet services anyway, completely ignoring HCE. Sure, HCE/HCE-F is still there in the Android developer documentation but it’s a dying vestigial relic of the SE wars.

But Google Pixel depends on vendor bundled eSE + NFC controllers and this makes global NFC support more complicated because Google doesn’t ‘own’ the eSE, at least not in the Apple sense of making their own all in one design. This is one reason why Pixel 3/4 only support FeliCa in Japanese models even though all worldwide models have the same NFC A-B-F hardware.

The end result of all this is the Android market is a very fragmented landscape, there are no global NFC Android smartphones: a device that supports EMV, FeliCa, MIFARE, PBOC out of the box in one globally available package.

Google Pay Octopus and the Android Global NFC Installed Base
Back to our original question, can Google Pay Octopus happen? We already have Google Pay Suica right? Let’s assume that Octopus Cards Limited (OCL) has everything in place for it to happen. Here we run into the problem just described: there are’t any global NFC Android smartphones available globally. Samsung sells them in Japan and Hong Kong, Google only sells them in Japan along with Huawei, Oppo, Sharp, etc.

For OCL this means the potential Google Pay installed base that can support Hong Kong Octopus consists of Samsung Galaxy smartphones that are already using Smart Octopus in Samsung Pay; not exactly a mouth watering business opportunity worth the support expense. If Google Pixel 5 goes deep instead of cheap Hong Kong would have a potential Octopus non-Samsung Android device, but that’s only one new device not an installed base. I only see Google Pay Octopus happening if Google foots the entire support expense.

There is a way forward however for OCL: Garmin Pay Suica. The same Garmin APAC models that support Suica can also support Octopus, the recharge backend is entirely Google Pay. Garmin smartwatches work with any Android 5 and higher smartphone, a much larger installed base that bypasses the fragmented Android landscape. Garmin Pay Octopus would offer Android users a way in, who want to use Octopus on a mobile device but who don’t want to use Samsung or Apple devices.

The conclusion: forget Google Pay Octopus for the time being. Hong Kong is a golden opportunity for Gamin Pay Octopus….if Garmin can get Garmin Pay clearance from Hong Kong authorities and banks, and cut a deal with OCL. It’s certainly in Octopus’ best interest for OCL to help turn the negotiation wheels. It’s also in Google’s interest as Google Pay would supply the recharge backend as it does for Garmin Suica. Big hurdles all, but I hope it happens.

If you need to enter your passcode

A reader asked me about using face masks with Express Transit. The great thing about Express Transit with Suica and Octopus is that the user doesn’t need Face ID or Touch ID to use transit or buy stuff. It’s very convenient to have, especially in our face mask era. iOS 13.5 added a small Face ID tweak for easier passcode entry when wearing a face mask. It helps with the basic unlock but for me regular Apple Pay authentication is still a pain.

The reader wanted to know if the iOS 13.5 Face ID tweak affected Express Transit. It does not. You don’t need Face ID to use Apple Pay Express Transit. But Face ID needs to be ‘on’ in order for Express Transit to work and finding the right information on Apple support pages is a little confusing. The reference page you want is If Face ID isn’t working on your iPhone or iPad Pro>If you need to enter your passcode:

The key sentences are outlined in red. Wearing a face mask is not a problem with Express Transit and Face ID turned on. However, “five unsuccessful attempts to match a face,” turns off Face ID and Express Transit. You need to enter your passcode to turn on Face ID and Express Transit again.

Unfortunately turning off Face ID wearing a face mask with five unsuccessful attempts without realizing it is easy to do and trips up a lot of Express Transit users who are not aware of it. That’s why I suggest turning off the ‘Raise to Wake’ option in Settings > Display & Brightness. Doing so reduces the chance of ‘five strikes’ and makes Face ID with face mask life a little easier.

Apple Pay Octopus Launch Meltdown

Anybody could have seen this one coming. When Apple Pay Suica launched in 2016 we had 2 things: the iOS 10.1 update and the Apple Pay Japan service launch all coming at the start of a Tokyo commute weekday. Lots of iPhone users decided to upgrade and add their Suica to Apple Pay. By 7am local Tokyo time Mobile Suica and Apple Pay iCloud servers were overloaded and not responding.

This time we had 3 things: Apple Pay Octopus, the iOS 13.5.1 update and Apple Maps Hong Kong Transit all launching at the same time. By 11 am Octopus servers were overloaded and not responding, the usual ‘small number of users’ were complaining on Twitter far earlier than that. Duh, so much for anticipating iPhone user demand. Octopus Cards Limited has posted an apology and instructions to fetch Octopus cards lost in the cloud. It a simple matter of adding the Octopus card to Wallet again. In some cases Octopus customers are getting refunds.

At least we know the launch was a success in that lots of iPhone and Apple Watch Hong Kong users apparently want to use Apple Pay Octopus. I guarantee this will drive mobile payments use far more than regular bank cards. Riding the transit and buying stuff with Express Transit is a no brainer.

Hell to the yes: Apple Pay Octopus launch…for real (Updated)

Good news for long suffering Hong Kong iPhone users: press invitations labeled ‘Redefining Mobile Payments’ that went out to local media outlets on May 28 signaled Octopus for Apple Pay would finally launch on June 2, which it did in tandem with Apple Maps Hong Kong Transit directions just before 1 am June 2 local Hong Kong time. The press event took place at 12:30 pm.

Didn’t we do this already?

OCL teased everyone when it first announced Apple Pay Octopus as ‘coming soon’ in July 2019, then ‘as soon as possible’ in September, finally postponing it in December for ‘later in 2020’ without explanation. This despite endless beta test leaks that indicated everything was ready to roll and endless launch rumors that never panned out. The Apple Pay Octopus Wait for Godot was a very bumpy journey. A timeline:

Global NFC iPhone and Apple Watch
Apple Pay Octopus is just like Apple Pay Suica with Express Transit. It can be used on iPhone 8 and later with iOS 13.5, and Apple Watch Series 3 and later with watchOS 6.2.5. Apple devices from anywhere can add and use Octopus thanks to Apple global NFC support but practical use is limited to having a Hong Kong issue Mastercard, Visa or UnionPay bank card already in Wallet.

iPhone 11 Pro/11/XR/XS have the A12/A13 Bionic exclusive Express Transit with power reserve feature that gives users an additional 5 hours of Express Transit use when iPhone is in low battery power reserve mode. A12/A13 Bionic powered transit card performance is also much improved over previous iPhone models because the Bionic Secure Element directly handles transactions that eliminate iOS overhead. If Octopus on iPhone X doesn’t work well, check this support post.

Apple Watch is the first time Octopus has landed on a smartwatch. As a long time Apple Pay Suica user I can tell you that it’s the Apple Watch killer app. Octopus users will really enjoy the experience on Apple Watch especially when hooked up with auto recharge/Automatic Add Value Service (AAVS).

Similarities with Suica
Octopus is based on the same FeliCa technology that powers Suica, both cards are very similar in scope and use for fast transit and contactless payments of all kinds. According to Wikipedia over 33 million Octopus cards were in circulation as of 2018 used by 99 per cent of Hong Kong residents. The ubiquity of Octopus with Express Transit for transit and purchases will drive Apple Pay use in Hong Kong far more than regular credit/debit cards.

Apple Pay Octopus and Apple Pay Suica both have the same fast Express Transit performance that no other Express Transit cards can match with faster gate performance than the recently added Apple Pay China T-Union mainland transit cards.

New virtual Octopus cards can be created directly in Wallet just like Apple Pay Suica cards or added via the Octopus app (v6). Plastic Octopus cards can also be transferred to Wallet but cannot be used after transfer.

Some attached services are not supported. Be sure to check Important Notes to Customers before transferring a plastic Octopus. Another issue to be aware of is that the Octopus card number changes when transferred which can cause problems with some card ID# linked services.

Not Inbound Friendly
OCL limits Apple Pay Octopus card creation and recharge to having Hong Kong issue Mastercard, UnionPay and Visa cards already added in Wallet. It’s clearly not geared for inbound visitors. This is a shame because Apple supports global NFC on all devices which Samsung and Android devices do not, a key difference.

In practice this means any iPhone 8 and later from anywhere can use Apple Pay Octopus but only when a Hong Kong issue bank payment card is already loaded in Wallet. Suica is very different in this regard: it can be created and recharged in Wallet with any Apple Pay loaded card no matter the brand or country of issue, all without service fees. It’s a very inbound friendly deal for Japan visitors with iPhone.

Unfortunately OCL was limited by restrictive Hong Kong bank agreements and didn’t offer any Apple Pay inbound friendly solutions at the press event. Hopefully they will expand inbound bank card support down the road as banks realize the value of enticing tourists to use Hong Kong transit.

Octopus was the first real transit platform (contactless transit and eMoney) that had a tremendous impact on the development of other transit card fare systems around the world such as Transport for London Oyster. However, OCL needs to aggressively expand Octopus services on other mobile digital wallets like Google Pay especially as MTR moves to add QR Code payment Open Loop support.

Apple Maps Transit Integration
Hong Kong Apple Maps Transit directions launched in tandem with Apple Pay Octopus. It makes sense for Apple to offer both services as an integrated package as they did for the Apple Pay Suica. In Japan, Google Maps transit directions offer more detail and a better UI than Apple Maps Transit even though they use the same data suppliers. Your milage may vary but Google Maps transit directions for Hong Kong has been in place for some time and offers extras like crowding info. Another limitation shared with Apple Maps in Japan: no indoor station mapping.

Greater Bay Area Apple Pay Transit Compatibility
Apple Pay Octopus is the last piece of the transit puzzle that delivers Express Transit convenience to Greater Bay Area iPhone/Apple Watch users who, up until iOS 13.4.1, were limited to China Union Pay (CUP) cards without Express Transit and plastic Octopus cards.

The recently released Apple Pay China T-Union transit cards are interoperable transit cards that work across the country, some 257 mainland cities, similar to what Japan has with Suica, ICOCA, PASMO. China T-Union uses the PBOC 2.0/3.0 protocol, the Chinese variant of EMV with the slowest NFC transaction speeds, they are limited to UnionPay issue credit/debit cards for recharge and cannot be used for purchases. Octopus uses the faster FeliCa protocol and offers an open Apple Pay recharge backend for Hong Kong issue cards.

The advantage for wide area travelers is that they can now add both Apple Pay Octopus and China T-Union cards in Wallet. Having 2 different Apple Pay transit cards in Wallet may not be exactly the same as the dual mode Sold Octopus•Lingnan Pass but it should be close. It will be interesting to hear what the Apple Pay Greater Bay Area transit experience is like using both services.

Why the long wait?
There has been endless speculation regarding the reasons for the Apple Pay Octopus delay. Technically it could have launched on iOS 12 but was held back for an unbelievably long test period over 2 major iOS versions, running from December 2018 and iOS 12 all the way to May 2020 and iOS 13.5, the last major release before iOS 14.

Why? Personally I always felt the unexplained November 2019 Smart Octopus service outage was an ominous sign that OCL plans were under political pressure, though many will disagree. Other possible delay reasons include Apple Pay recharge card support and fee negotiations, and lining up Apple Map transit data. There’s no question that the go-slow OCL approach with constant tweaking of mobile and O! ePay services was not helped by the ever-deteriorating political situation.

The Apple Pay Octopus launch story was a long winding road with many ups and letdowns in the very difficult year of 2019. 2020 is also a very difficult year in a different way, though I hope it can still turn out to be a time of recovery.

I’d like to thank all the readers who shared Octopus tips and comments that let me report a complex, ever changing situation. I learned many things, the most important of which is that Hong Kong people are very kind and very smart. Wish you all a safe, healthy and happy transit wherever you go.

‘Redefining Mobile Payments’ June 2 press event invitation
Mobile Suica has a long history dating back to 2007. Mobile use growth had stalled until the Apple Pay Suica launch in 2016. Octopus on Apple Pay will likely drive a similar spurt of mobile use.

UPDATES

June 3 8:00 JST: Octopus issues apology, “Due to the overwhelming response to the launch of Octopus on iPhone and Apple Watch, some customers could not add their Octopus between 11:30 am and 12:19 pm on 2 June,” and compensating some Octopus users
June 2 12:00 JST: Octopus Card Limited site updated for Apple Pay Octopus and a press release
June 2 09:00 JST: Apple Pay Octopus page added to Hong Kong Apple site with instructions for creating, transferring and topping up Octopus cards in Apple Pay
June 2 03:20 JST: Octopus App v6 update released
June 2 01:50 JST: Apple Pay Octopus has launched, rollout expanding in stages
June 2 00:46 JST: Apple Pay Transit directions for Hong Kong appearing in advance of the Apple Pay Octopus