No global NFC evolution for Pixel 4?

iFixit posted a teardown of the Pixel 4 and we have a new NFC chip: STMicroelectronics ST54J NFC controller. This replaces the NXP PN81 used in Pixel 3 but still has a embedded secure element (eSE) that supports all the global NFC technologies: NFC A-B-F/EMV/FeliCa/MIFARE.

NFC Forum device certification requires NFC A-B-F hardware support, but Google went the cheap route again with the extra step of not installing FeliCa transaction keys in non-JP Pixel 4 models. This means only Pixel JP models are global NFC devices, users with non JP models cannot add and use the Japanese Suica transit card or Hong Kong Octopus. iPhone and Apple Watch have global NFC as a standard feature on all worldwide models since iPhone 8/X and Apple Watch Series 3.

Pixel 3 was step towards global NFC with the Japanese models. The Pixel 3 Global NFC Evolution post examined the possibility of Google creating their own ‘in house’ embedded secure element (eSE) for all NFC transactions technologies implemented on their own Secure Enclave Pixel platform. I was wrong and made some bad assumptions:

  • Apple was already doing global NFC transactions on the A/S Series Secure Enclave, so Google would try to do the same with their Titan chip.
  • The Pixel Phone hardware page states: if you purchased your Pixel 4, 3a or 3 phone in Japan, a FeliCa chip is located in the same area as the NFC. The wording suggests a separate FeliCa chip for JP Pixel models but this is not the case.

FeliCa Dude was very considerate of my Pixel global NFC fantasy even though it made no sense at all cost-wise or software-wise having an extra NFC FeliCa chip and multiple eSE just for JP models. He extensively tested a Pixel 3 JP model, a single global NFC NXP PN81B chip was the only answer.

The iFixit teardown confirms that Pixel 4 simply repeats last year’s Pixel 3 strategy of having global NFC hardware but only buying FeliCa transaction keys for JP models. It’s a weird strategy because the whole point of the NXP PN81 and ST54J chips is to provide customers with a convenient off the shelf global NFC package with all the hardware (NFC A-B-F) and software (EMV/FeliCa/MIFARE) ready to go.

The Pixel 4 looks like a great device but the NFC story angle remains a disappointment. As I have said before, the Android equivalent of global NFC iPhone and Apple Watch has yet to appear.

FeliCa Dude posted a deep dive into the Pixel 4 ST54J NFC chip and comes up with some fascinating analysis. He points out there were three model classes for Pixel 3:

  • Devices with eSIM functionality and without Mobile FeliCa
  • Devices without eSIM functionality and without Mobile FeliCa: the carrier-neutered model with a locked bootloader.
  • Devices without eSIM functionality and with Mobile FeliCa (the G013B/G013D models)

Pixel 4 delivers eSIM and FeliCa together to the Japanese market for the first time and this appears to be a reason behind Google choosing the ST54J that has eSIM + global NFC eSE on a single die. FeliCa Dude does not have a Pixel 4 yet so there is more analysis to do, but the important point is this:

if the Japanese SKUs of the Pixel 4 are indeed based on the ST54J, then there should be no technical reason why such <Mobile FeliCa> functionality can’t be delivered OTA <over the air update> to the ROW <rest of world> SKUs should Google desire to provide that service

The Pixel 4, the ST54J and Mobile FeliCa

It would be nice indeed if Google left the door open for adding Mobile FeliCa later to all non JP Pixel 4 models with a software update, especially for markets like Hong Kong that can use it. Whether Google will actually do that is another matter entirely.